1What exactly is Public Health?
In public health, problems are named within the context of the community as a whole rather than occurring in a series of individuals. This view leads to the establishment of priorities and permits rational choices on the use of resources. Over the years, the unique feature of public health has been acknowledged to be “Organized Community Effort” and “Systematic Social Action”. Public Health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of diseases and the development of social machinery which will ensure to every individual, in the community, a standard of living adequate for maintenance of health. Public Health is a mission for the fulfillment of society’s interest in assuring the conditions in which people can be healthy, through organised community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health, using activities undertaken within the formal structure of government as well as the associated efforts of private and voluntary organizations and individuals.
2What does a Public Health Person do?
As per international consensus, the role of public health is to contribute to the health of the public (community) through:Assessment of Health Status & Health Needs:For making assessments of health status and health needs and to reach a “community diagnosis”, with the ultimate objective of formulating health policies and planning appropriate health services, public health specialists draw heavily from the “quantitative sciences” (Epidemiology, Research Methodology, Bio-statistics, Information Technology); from “Environmental Sciences”; from “Socio-Behavioral & Communication Sciences”; and, from “Bio-Medical Sciences”.Development of Health Policies:For this purpose, the public health specialist will need a good knowledge of Quantitative Sciences; Managerial Sciences; and of Socio-Behavioral & Communication Sciences.Assurance of the Availability and Quality of Health Services: To fulfill this role, sound knowledge of Basic Clinical Skills, Managerial Sciences, Bio-Medical Sciences and Quantitative Sciences would be an essential requirement.Strengthening Key Public Health Institutions and Infrastructure: : Given the central role that strategic epidemiologic information plays in the effective functioning of health systems, a major contribution that public health makes to HSS lies in building and enhancing the systems needed to generate those data as well as supporting the entities responsible for managing those systems and interpreting the data they generate. Developing Dedicated public health institutions: Typically, public health tends to be spread across numerous programs within the standard configuration of MOHFW and is often overshadowed by the larger curative health responsibilities of the ministry. Preparedness and response infrastructure: Assisting countries to prepare for public health emergencies, including natural and human-made disasters, outbreaks of infectious diseases, and unusual clusters of non-infectious diseases (such as toxicity events), is clearly an area of great importance for public health. Establishing Strong Public Health Laboratory Networks: Another key entity within the MOHFW is its system of reference and diagnostic laboratories. Public health laboratories are essential for conducting laboratory-based surveillance of infectious diseases and for providing diagnostic services to confirm causes of outbreaks or to direct treatment of ill individuals.Building a Skilled and Capable Healthcare Human resources: The success of any health system depends on the availability of an appropriately trained, competent workforce. A primary focus of public health professional is to build the workforce needed to staff key national public health institutions, conduct the core functions of public health, and implement and manage critical health programs. Implementing Public Health Programs: A public health professional with core competencies of managerial skills by liaison skills and advocacy skills he/she will be implementing the public health programs in the facilities. Supporting Critical Operational/Applied Research:While it is true that much is known about how to prevent many diseases, it is also true that solution- and action-oriented research continues to be needed.
3What are examples of Public Health?
Examples of Public Health includes, awareness about the healthy practices, health promotion, capacity building of the health care workforce, strengthening health facility by providing technical assistance, developing health policies, implementing health care programs in grass root levels, educating and communicating about the health policies, preventing diseases of the community, promoting healthier activities, preventing disease outbreaks, and spread of infectious diseases, providing health facilities at villages through healthcare workforce, operationalization of health facility at outreach Ares. Eradication of diseases and research about new diseases and their preventions. The emphasis on collective responsibility for health. An envisaged major role of the state in protecting and promoting the public’s health. A focus on whole populations and not on individuals. An emphasis on prevention, especially primary prevention, while not losing track of the importance of curative medicine also. Protecting the environment, food and water. Promoting healthy behavior through information, education and communication. Assessing needs, making community diagnosis and monitoring the health status of the population/ community being served. Leading to the development of sound health policy and planning. Health programme management and management of other medical & health care systems (health care system includes the triad of personal medical care, public health care and other inter-sectoral initiatives related to health). Preventing and investigating epidemics and maintaining surveillance on important diseases, to provide early warning. Promoting the health and efficiency of the “workers” and protecting the “work-environment”. Effectively responding to disasters. Mobilizing community action. Research to develop new insights and innovative solutions for relevant community health problems. Reaching out to link the health services with the high risk, disadvantaged and hard to reach people (socioeconomically weaker sections, hilly, tribal and inaccessible areas), or those requiring special attention (women, children and old people). Assuring the availability, accessibility, quality and accountability of medical care.
4Is Public Health a good career?
There is an array of job opportunities for public health professionals. They will get a good head start to work directly with elite organizations of the world. Any graduate who pursues a degree in Public health can work in Government Agencies: Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), National Health Mission (NHM: NRHM & NUHM), National Institute of Health (NIH), National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), National Health System Resource Centre (NHSRC). UN Agencies: World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nation Children Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programs (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), United Nations Sustainable Development Framework (UNSDF), World Bank (WB), World Food Program (WFP), UN Women, UN Volunteers, etc. International Agencies: Care India, Engender Health, Jhpiego, World Vision, Red Cross Society, Oxfam, Plan India, PATH, Population International Council (PIC), Technical Support Unit (TSU) by BMGF, Teach for All, Nutritional International (NI), ILO, SOS Children, etc. National Organisations: GCFORCB Organisation, Population council of India, Action Aid, IHAT, IPAS, Ford Foundation, Antra Foundation, Azim Premji Foundation, Reliance Foundation, SBI Foundation, ICICI Foundation, YES Foundation, ECHO India, etc. Health Care Organisations: Public Health Professional can join hospitals, Public Health Hospitals (DH, SDH, CHC, PHC, UPHC, SC), long term care facilities. Public Health Institution: Public Health Masters can teach Bachelor in Public Health (BPH), Master in Public Health (MPH), PG Diploma students, Certificate course, Health care management course, health care administration course, Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Public Health Nutrition, Research Methodology, Health informatics, Maternal and Child health, Public Health Ethics, HCDS, ICDS, Communicable disease, non-communicable disease, global Health, etc.
5What are the essential functions of the Public Health Services?
- Assess and Monitor health status to identify and solve community health problems (e.g., community health profile, vital statistics, and health status, Investigate, diagnose, and address health problems and hazards affecting the population)
- Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community (e.g., epidemiologic surveillance systems, laboratory support)
- Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues (e.g., health promotion and social marketing) factors that influence it, and how to improve it.
- Mobilize community partnerships and action to identify and solve health problems
- Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts
- Utilize ethical and regulatory actions designed to improve and protect the public’s health
- Assure an effective system that enables equitable access to the individual services and care needed to be healthyfshdghngfd
- Link people to needed personal health services and ensure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable
- Build and support a diverse and skilled public health workforce
- Improve and innovate public health functions through ongoing evaluation, research, and continuous quality care, continuum care, quality services and supportive care.
- Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services
- Build and maintain a strong organizational infrastructure for public health
- Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services
6What are the core functions of Public Health?
The core functions of Public Health include Assessment, Planning, Implementation and Evaluation. The core function of Public health are as follows; Assessment: Identify the gap in system, Resources, capacity of the workforce, Technical ability, and fulfill those gaps with core competencies of Public Health Knowledge and skills. Planning: On the basis of assessment activities required to achieve a desired goal. It is the first and foremost activity to achieve desired results. It involves the creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological aspects that require conceptual skills. Implementation: carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design, idea, model, specification, standard or policy for doing something. As such, implementation is the action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen. Evaluation: Systematically determine subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards and the process of planning and implementation to be evaluate including monitor the both process.
7What are the Unique Features of Public Health?
Several unique feature of public health individually and collectively serve to make understanding and appreciation of the domain is difficult. These include the underlying social justice philosophy of public health; its inherently political nature; its ever-expanding agenda, with new problems and issues being assigned overtime; its link with government; its grounding in a board base of biologic, physical, quantitative, social, and behavioral science; its focus on prevention as a primary intervention strategy; and unique bond and sense of mission that links its proponents. Some features are like:
8What are the role of Public Health?
The contribution of public health is of essential significance in both the preparedness planning process and the reaction to health risks since the execution of public health measures is situated within the capability of the public health system. The major roles of public health are; (a) Leadership : Providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed (b) Setting standards : Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation (c) Policy formulation : Articulating ethical and evidence based policy options (d) Capacity building : Providing technical support, catalyzing change and building sustainable institutional capacity; (e) Monitoring : Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends (f) Research : Shaping the research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge.
9How can we measure the value of Public Health efforts?
Public opinion polls conducted in recent years suggest that public health is highly valued in the world. The overwhelming majority of the public rated a verity of key public health services as very important. Specially 98% of public believe that prevention of the spread of infectious disease like COVID is very important. 91% of also believe that conducting research into the causes and prevention of disease is very important. 93% believe immunization to prevent disease is important. 87% believe that ensuring that people are not exposed to unsafe water, air pollution or toxic waste is important 85% believe that it is very important t work to reduce death and injuries from any diseases or violence. 88% believe that it is very important to encourage people to live healthier lifestyle, to eat well, and not to smoke and consume alcohol. 66% believe that it is important to reduce injuries, accidents and death rate at working place, on roads and streets.
10Who can enroll in Public Health Courses?
The person who has completed undergraduate and or Postgraduate studies in Health Science Stream & Non Health Science Stream in any discipline.
11How much will the registration form cost?
The application form is free of cost. Whether you can apply through online form of Printed form.
12Will I get Placement Assistance after the course?
Yes of course. The Institute has a very good record for placement assistance. Its provides 100% assistance to get a suitable placement in a both international and national NGOs for those who undergo for 1 year PGDPHA course.
13How much will be my financial package after completion of 1 Year PGDPHA?
It depends upon the performance both in exams and during the interviews and the place of employment.
14Will I get any concessions in terms of course fees?
It is strictly against the University norms to give any concession(s).
15Who will my contact person to address any queries?
It will be the Program Coordinator of UIGH Ranchi. This information will be provided to you at the time of admission.
16Where do I deposit the Fee?
It is to be deposited at the UIGH centre from where you enroll for a course, please take cash receipt from Concerned Authority.
17Where do you place me?
The placements are in different UN agencies, INGOs, NPOs, NBOs, CBOs, but generally in various International organizations and National Organisations PAN India. (Please read Question: Is Public Health a Good Career?)
18Are these courses being accreditation to any university?
Yes, of Course. These courses are accreditation by both national and international. National: Martine Luther Christian University (MLCU), Shillong, Meghalaya. International: International Accreditation Organisation (IAO).
19What is the medium of instruction of the course?
All courses are in English medium.
20Do PGDPHA make me eligible for doing higher course?
Yes. PGDPHA is recognized and approved by the MLC University and you are eligible for do Master in Public Health from UIGH and MLCU and in any university.